The gingival sulcus is the natural space found between the tooth and the gum tissue that surrounds the tooth, known as the free gingiva. Flossing between your teeth removes plaque and food from the gingival sulcus. During a dental examinationthe dentist or dental hygienist may use an instrument called a periodontal probe to measure the depth of the gingival sulcus; this is to determine the health of the gums and measure the extent of bone loss as a result of advanced periodontal disease.
Healthy gums generally have a sulcus depth that may range anywhere from 1 to 3mm. Sulcus depths greater than 3mm occur in patients that have varying degrees of periodontal disease.How to use an electric toothbrush - AJ Hedger
This is referred to as a periodontal pocket. As it is a space between the tooth and the gum, the gingival sulcus is naturally a landing spot for plaque.
Plaque is a soft, sticky, and colorless deposit that is continually forming on and around our teeth and gums. It often forms in the space between the teeth and the gum tissue, commonly known as the gingival sulcus. Often undetected, plaque attacks the teeth and gums with the acid it produces from bacteria in your mouth. The bacteria use the sugars from foods and beverages along with saliva, to thrive and multiply. This acid attack breaks down the tooth's enamel, causing tooth sensitivity and ending with varying degrees of tooth decay.
Plaque is also responsible for gum disease and contributes to bad breath. Considering all of the damage that plaque can do to the mouth, teeth, and surrounding areas, the prevention of plaque is a very important and central step to dental care.
There are two effective methods of plaque prevention. Limiting your overall consumption of foods high in carbohydrates is one way to prevent plaque. Since a high rate of carbohydrate consumption leads to a higher presence of plaque build-up, removing carbohydrates from your diet will limit plaque. Candy, cookies, soda, and other extremely sweet and sugary items should be avoided, especially in excess, to prevent plaque buildup. Completely avoiding carbohydrates is nearly impossible, however.
Thus, frequent brushing and flossing is the second way to prevent plaque buildup. Brushing and flossing twice a day is recommended. Brushing works to loosen and remove plaque that has built up around the teeth. Flossing works to remove food particles and debris that get stuck in between the teeth.
By flossing it out, you are providing this bacteria with less of an opportunity to form into plaque. Thus, a conscious effort needs to be made to thoroughly clean the area between the tooth and the gum tissue that surrounds the tooth.
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Steinman of the University of California, San Diego. The supplies needed include topical anesthetic such as Hurricaine geldental needles, lidocaine Carpules, and a Carpule syringe. Dental syringes, which can be purchased from dental supply companies, are "incredibly" inexpensive, he noted.
The anesthesia requires nothing that is not already in the office, including anesthetic gel and "lots and lots of Q tips," he said.
If there's going to be a lot of dental gel in a patient's mouth during a cosmetic procedure, be sure to have some bottled water available, because many people really don't like the gel's taste. Injected anesthetics that can be used to perform the mucosal block include lidocaine, bupivacaine, mepivacaine, and others. Steinman outlined the procedure for performing the upper- and lower-lip mucosal block.
The first step in the procedure is to apply topical anesthetic. Then, at the gingival-buccal sulcus, just lateral to the apex of the canine tooth, inject a small amount of anesthetic approximately 0.
The procedure should be repeated on the contralateral side. Inject a small amount from the sulcus next to the frenulum toward the anterior nasal spine, he added. For the patient's lower lip, inject submucosally in the sulcus from the point below the oral commissure to the contralateral side.
Finally, because the nerve block does not reach the corners of the mouth, it is necessary to apply topical anesthetic on the mucosal surface of the oral commissures and then inject a small amount of anesthetic to anesthetize the corners of the mouth. Injecting these areas takes a total of about 15 seconds, Dr.
It is also important to keep in mind that facial blocks do not impart any vasoconstriction, so consider injecting locally for procedures that result in bleeding, he added. Your patients are secretly praying that what you're going to do is going to be painless. Skip to main content. Coronavirus News Center. By Carolyn Sachs. Equipment required for the mucosal block procedure is simple and modestly priced.
Steinman said. Steinman emphasized that the mucosal block works fast. Steinman said that he had no relevant conflicts of interest. SDEF and this news organization are wholly owned subsidiaries of Elsevier. Aesthetic Dermatology.
Menu Menu Presented by. Menu Close.Special Offers. When you stroll down the dental care products aisle at your local store, most items on the shelves should seem familiar. Of course you recognize floss, toothpastes and toothbrushes. But what about those tools that look like metal arms with rubber spikes on the top? Those might be less familiar to you. Known as a gum stimulator, this tool doesn't get as much attention as a toothbrush, floss or toothpaste — three tools you should be using daily for optimal oral health.
But gum stimulators can play an important role in keeping your teeth clean and your mouth healthy. You might want to add one to your daily oral care routine. Gum stimulators aren't fancy tools. Usually, they are available at drug stores for just a few dollars.
Your dentist might throw one into your goody bag at the end of your check-up and cleaning appointment, if they think you would benefit from using one. Typically, the tool has a metal handle with a pointy rubber or silicone tip at the end. The tip is usually somewhat firm, although silicone tips tend to be slightly softer.
The tips don't last forever. After a few months of consistent use, you might notice that yours is worn down. When that happens, you should replace the tip. You don't have to buy a new tool, though, as replacement tips are sold separately.
Q: Which tooth brushing technique involves the application of the bristles to the sulcular area?
Gum stimulators can help your mouth in more ways than you might expect. For people with wider spacing between teeth, gum stimulators can be particularly useful to clean between the teeth. As you might know, your mouth is full of bacteria. Some of it is "good bacteria," meaning it won't hurt you and might even help you. Some of it is bad bacteria, which can cause infections. Anaerobic bacteria thrive when no oxygen is present.
Some strains die when exposed to oxygen. When you use a stimulator to massage your gums, you're increasing blood flow and introducing oxygen to the area, which may help eliminate nasty bacteria.
Gum stimulators aren't difficult to use, but it's important to keep in mind that they aren't a replacement for toothbrushing and flossing.
Place the rubber tip of the stimulator between two teeth, at a 45 degree angle. Using a gentle, circular motion, massage the gumline. Repeat until you've massaged each space between your teeth. You can also gently run the tip of the stimulator along the bottom edge of your teeth, right where they meet the gums. Doing so will remove any excess plaque and food caught between the teeth. If you're not sure how to use a stimulator or you're worried that your technique isn't correct, you can ask your dentist or dental hygienist for advice and a demonstration at your next appointment.
As with brushing your teeth, you want to avoid using too much force or pressure when you use a gum stimulator. When it comes to your teeth and gums, gentle is always the way to go.
You'll want to replace the tip on the stimulator every so often. One way to get into the habit of changing the tip is to replace it whenever you get a new toothbrush. Do you need to stimulate your gums? You can always ask your dentist or dental hygienist for guidance. This article is intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health topics.One of the most challenging aspects of crown and bridge treatment is the management of the gingival tissue prior to impression making.
The management includes placing the gingival tissues away from the prepared tooth margins so that they can be impressed, combined with providing for hemostasis when the gingival tissues might bleed.
Whether or not the impression is made conventionally with impression material or with a digital impression technique, all the tooth margins need to be captured to assure an excellent marginal fit of a lab fabricated restoration. There are many techniques to achieve retraction, including retraction cords, chemical reagents, electrosurgery, laser tissue sculpting and hemostatic materials that displace tissue atraumatically.
In most cases, gingival retraction cord is the most effective and most commonly used method.
Controlling the soft tissue, managing any bleeding and exposing the margins is what is most critical. That is why the clinician needs to understand all the choices available. Mechanical displacement of the gingival tissues aside from the tooth prep margins allow us visualization and access, and we do this best with retraction cords.
A survey of prosthodontists in showed that 98 percent of those who responded used retraction cord and half of them used the double cord technique. Back then, plain cord was the most commonly used cord followed by aluminum chloride-impregnated cord. Braided cords have a tight and consistent weave. For many clinicians, these are easier to place in the sulcus with packing instruments serrated or non-serrated.
Since they expand when wet, knitted cords will open the sulcus greater than the original diameter of the cord. With either braided or knitted there is a variety of diameters and sizes to allow for ease of placement in tighter and healthier gingival sulcuses. Ultimately, it is a personal preference. One study published in the showed that knitted cords were preferred over braided and there was no advantage to cords impregnated with epinephrine.
Either way, when handling retraction cord it is important to remember to use latex free gloves because contamination of the cord with latex can have a deleterious effect on the setting of the VPS impression materials. This is important when a light body material is placed first into the sulcus. If it does not cure completely, it can result in inaccuracies or tearing of the fine gingival margin within the impression. The end of the cord packer needs to be thin enough to be placed in the gingival sulcus without damaging the tissue and causing any bleeding.
The angulation of the instrument will help in the orientation for the placement. Design of the instrument is limited to the manufacturer, but many dentists utilize two different instruments depending on the tooth location. Thin, flat instruments for anterior tissue which tends to be thinner and tighter works quite well, and rounder serrated or non-serrated work better for posterior teeth.
The astringents cause a contraction-retraction of the tissues, and the hemostatic agents constrict blood flow through coagulation. These agents will initially cause a transient ischemia shrinking the gingival tissue.
These compounds include aluminum potassium sulfate, aluminum sulfate, percent aluminum chloride, Sweater Puppies.
So many words to describe such delightful parts of the body. For as many words as there are for breasts, there are opinions about them.
The IOL in the Sulcus: When, Why & How
It's the rare person who doesn't have some sort of feelings about their breasts. Even though they're considered secondary sex characteristics, many folks have a stronger emotional connection to their breasts than even their genitals. Likewise, when it comes to sexy time, everybody relates differently to breast stimulation. Some folks like it whisper gentle. Others don't get excited until you bust out the rope and riding crops.
Unfortunately, few folks ever get a crash course in how to touch breasts for maximum pleasurewhich means we often might skip over the subtle, delicious sexiness in pursuit of more crotch-oriented activities.
But integrating intentional, skillful breast play can help reassert sex as a full-body experience, and can add delicious variety to your make-out and sexy time sessions. Here are 14 tips for fun breast playadapted here from the pages of my book, Girl Sex Click Here To Buy. First things first — understand your anatomy. What we consider the nipple is actually made up of three parts: the Areola the whole area of darker fleshthe Sulcus the small division between the areola and nippleand the Nipple the raised part where milk comes out when lactating.
As for the breast, it's a mix of fatty tissue, lymph nodes, and a bunch of nerves. Where the breast attaches to the torso is called the "root. Fun Fact: all breasts, regardless of size, have the same number of nerve endings.
This means, as a general rule, small breasts are more sensitive and large breasts can generally handle more intense stimulation. Of course, the person on the receiving end of touch has the ultimate say in what kind of touch they want. If your partner identifies in one of these ways, it's best to ask before touching at all. Some trans guys love having their breasts stimulated, but only if you're touching them as you would touch pecs think: more general palm squeezing, less nip-flicks.
Others are totally down with nipple play, and get a lot of pleasure that way. Either way, be sure to ask so that you can be extra careful not to misgender or hurt anyone.Bass method is the most widely used technique, as it can target plaque found slightly below the gingival margin. But this is also important for the case studies. What keywords would you need to look for in the case study to recommend that Bass method? Those would be:. As you can see, any clues that point towards the patient having a problem or a potential problem can lead to recommending the Bass method.
Educating our patients about oral health is one of the most important roles we play. At StudentRDH, we try to prepare you with the best prep course for the dental hygiene boardsbut also give you plenty of tips for your clinicals. Every day is another day for you to help your patient while becoming the dental professional you deserve to be. Related blog in the chapter of dental hygiene process of care: Bacteria mainly involved in caries formation. Claire is an entrepreneur, author, educator, researcher, and international speaker.
Through her live and online courses, Claire helped tens of thousands of people gain valuable dental knowledge and clinical skills. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. This is a widgetized sidebar area and you can place any widget here, as you would with the classic WordPress sidebar. Q: Which tooth brushing technique involves the application of the bristles to the sulcular area?
Add comment. Add comment September 20, 3 min read. Further reading. Follow studentrdh. Please note This is a widgetized sidebar area and you can place any widget here, as you would with the classic WordPress sidebar.Medical Neuroscience explores the functional organization and neurophysiology of the human central nervous system, while providing a neurobiological framework for understanding human behavior.
In this course, you will discover the organization of the neural systems in the brain and spinal cord that mediate sensation, motivate bodily action, and integrate sensorimotor signals with memory, emotion and related faculties of cognition.
The overall goal of this course is to provide the foundation for understanding the impairments of sensation, action and cognition that accompany injury, disease or dysfunction in the central nervous system. The course will build upon knowledge acquired through prior studies of cell and molecular biology, general physiology and human anatomy, as we focus primarily on the central nervous system.
Periodontal Pockets: Cleaning & Treatment
This online course is designed to include all of the core concepts in neurophysiology and clinical neuroanatomy that would be presented in most first-year neuroscience courses in schools of medicine. However, there are some topics e. Nevertheless, our aim is to faithfully present in scope and rigor a medical school caliber course experience.
This course comprises six units of content organized into 12 weeks, with an additional week for a comprehensive final exam: - Unit 1 Neuroanatomy weeks This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. This unit addresses the fundamental mechanisms of neuronal excitability, signal generation and propagation, synaptic transmission, post synaptic mechanisms of signal integration, and neural plasticity.
Here, you will learn the overall organization and function of the sensory systems that contribute to our sense of self relative to the world around us: somatic sensory systems, proprioception, vision, audition, and balance senses. In this unit, we will examine the organization and function of the brain and spinal mechanisms that govern bodily movement.
Next, we turn our attention to the neurobiological mechanisms for building the nervous system in embryonic development and in early postnatal life; we will also consider how the brain changes across the lifespan. The course concludes with a survey of the association systems of the cerebral hemispheres, with an emphasis on cortical networks that integrate perception, memory and emotion in organizing behavior and planning for the future; we will also consider brain systems for maintaining homeostasis and regulating brain state.
Brain, Neurological Disorders, Neurobiology, Neurology. While I greatly respect Dr. White's obvious immense knowledge of the neural anatomy, I feel taking this course did very little beyond showing me that perhaps medicine and anatomy wasn't for me. I've always wanted to attend a course like this which offers such a detailed description of the fundamentals of neuroscience. Glad I found it and sure as hell recommended it to all my friends. We now begin in earnest our lessons on neuroanatomy with the surface of the human brain, including a brief run through the cranial nerves and the blood supply to the CNS.
In this module, you will learn the basic subdivisions of the vertebrate nervous system; however, your focus should be on the cerebral cortex. Another great way to refine your mental model is through sketching and crafting, so please do the learning objectives that are designed to help you make visible and tangible your understanding of the cerebral hemispheres. Loupe Copy. Medical Neuroscience.
Enroll for Free. From the lesson. Lateral Surface of the Brain Medial Surface of the Brain Finding the Central Sulcus Ventral Surface of the Brain