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Photovoltaic Solar Energy and Solar Hydrogen - A site of solar panels 20 miles x 20 miles in Nevada could provide enough Myth: Solar panels are extremely expensive. A site of solar panels 20 miles x 20 miles in Nevada could provide enough Solar power is energy from the sun.
It is considered as a serious source of energy for many years because of the vast amounts of energy that is made freely available. What is Solar Power, Types and Advantages.
Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Seminar Reports and PPT Topics
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Solar market penetration is created by the levelized cost of energy LCOE over These are environment friendly method of generating and distributing electricity.
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A perovskite structured compound is a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material and also has the active layer for harvesting the light.
Perovskite materials like methylammonium lead halides are affordable to generate and also easy to manufacture. The efficiencies of the solar cells of the machines availing these materials have enhanced from 3. Perovskite solar cells became very attractive commercially because of its potential to achieve even more efficiencies of the solar cells and also because of the very low and affordable production costs.
Features of Perovskite Solar Cells:. The methylammonium lead trihalide has an optical band gap between 1.Mod-01 Lec-38 Solar Cells
Formamidinum lead trihalide i. Perovskite solar cells have a benefit in their processing over the traditional silicon solar cells. Because the traditional solar cells need costly and multistep processing and this has to be conducted at a high temperature of fewer than degrees centigrade in a high vacuum in a unique clean room with all the required facilities.
Well, the inorganic-organic perovskite material can be generated with the easy methods of wet chemistry in a lab that has a traditional lab environment. The formamidinium lead trihalides and methylammonium lead trihalides have been made by availing a variety of solvent methods and vapor deposition methods; they have the strength of scaling up with relative feasibility.
In one step solution processing, a methylammonium halide and lead halide can be dissolved in a solvent and can be spin coated onto a substrate. Due to the steps like convective self-assembly and subsequent evaporation at the time of spinning results in dense layers.
It results in the dense layers of well-crystallized perovskite material because of the powerful ionic interactions within the material. The simple coating of spin does not result in homogeneous layers but need the addition of other layers like DMSO, GBL, and toluene drips. Other method availing room solvent-solvent extraction generates high-quality crystalline films with the accurate control over thickness down to 20nm.
In the other solution processed method, a mixture of methylammonium halide and lead iodide dissolved in DMF is preheated.
In the methods of vapor assisted, exfoliated or spin coated lead halide is annealed in the presence of methylammonium iodide vapor and this method maintains the temperature of around degrees centigrade. Fig1: Sensitized Perovskite Solar Cell. Why is Silicon PV still Expensive? The silicon PV is still expensive because of the following reasons:. All you need to do is just click on the download link and get it.Solar cell is a device or a structure that converts the solar energy i.
The basic principle behind the function of solar cell is based on photovoltaic effect. In another way of defining the solar cell it is a solid state electrical device that converts energy of light directly into electricity by Photoelectric Effect. Mainly Solar cell is constructed using the crystalline Silicon that consists of a n-type semiconductor. This is the first or upper layer also known as emitter layer.
The second layer is p-type semiconductor layer known as base layer. Both the layers are sandwiched and hence there is formation of p-n junction between them.
The surface is coated with anti-reflection coating to avoid the loss of incident light energy due to reflection. As soon as the solar cell is exposed to sunlight, the solar energy which is present in the form of light photons is absorbed by semi conductor materials.
Due to this absorbed energy, the phenomena of photovoltaic occurs and electrons are liberated and produce the external DC current. The DC current is converted into volt AC current using an inverter for different applications.
Photovoltaic cells are made of special materials called semiconductors such as silicon. An atom of silicon has 14 electrons, arranged in three different shells. The outer shell has 4 electrons. Therefore a silicon atom will always look for ways to fill up its last shell, and to do this, it will share electrons with four nearby atoms. Now we use phosphorus with 5 electrons in its outer shell. Therefore when it combines with silicon, one electron remains free.
When energy is added to pure silicon it can cause few electrons to break free of their bonds and leave their atoms. These are called free carriers, which move randomly around the crystalline lattice looking for holes to fall into and carrying an electrical current.
However, they are very few and are not very useful. As a result, we have a lot more free carriers than we would have in pure silicon to become N-type silicon. The other part of a solar cell is doped with the element boron with 3 electrons in its outer shell to become P-type silicon. Now, when this two type of silicon interact, an electric field forms at the junction which prevents more electrons to move to P-side.
When photon hits solar cell, its solar energy breaks apart electron-hole pairs. Each photon with enough energy will normally free exactly one electronresulting in a free hole as well. If this happens close enough to the electric field, this causes disruption of electrical neutrality, and if we provide an external current path, electrons will flow through the P side to unite with holes that the electric field sent there, doing work for us along the way.
This electron flow provides the current. As we know that photon is a flux of light particles and photovoltaic energy conversion relies on the number of photons striking the earth. On a clear day, about 4. Only some of these photons that are having energy in excess of the band gap are convertible to electricity by the solar cell.
When such photon enters the semiconductor, it may be absorbed and promote an electron from the valence band to the conduction band, that creates a hole in the valence band. After that the electron in the conduction band and hole in valence band combine together and forms electron-hole pairs. Thus when we connect these p and n layers to external circuit, electrons flow from n-layer to p-layer, hence current is generated.
The electrons that leave the solar cell as current give up their energy to whatever is connected to the solar cell, and then re-enter the solar cell.
Once back in the solar cell, the process begins again to produce more solar energy. The Mono crystalline silicon cell is produced from pure silicon single crystal. Since the Mono crystalline silicon is pure and defect free, the efficiency of cell is higher. Polycrystalline solar cells use liquid silicon as raw material. Since the polycrystalline silicon involves solidification process the materials contain various crystalline sizes.Types of Solar cell Principle, construction and working of Solar cell Advantage, disadvantage and application 1.
Introduction Solar cell: Solar cell is a photovoltaic device that converts the light energy into electrical energy based on the principles of photovoltaic effect.
Recap Lecture-1 : Photo means light in Greek and Volt is the name of a pioneer in the study of electricity Alessandro Volta. Albert Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his research on the photoelectric effecta phenomenon central to the generation of electricity through solar cells.
First generation cells consist of large-area, high quality and single junction devices. First Generation technologies involve high energy and labour inputs which prevent any significant progress in reducing production costs. Second Generation Second generation materials have been developed to address energy requirements and production costs of solar cells.
Alternative manufacturing techniques such as vapour deposition and electroplating are advantageous as they reduce high temperature processing significantly 4. Materials for Solar cell Solar cells are composed of various semiconducting materials 1. Crystalline silicon Cadmium telluride Copper indium diselenide Gallium arsenide Indium phosphide Zinc sulphide.
Note: Semiconductors are materials, which become electrically conductive when supplied with light or heat, but which operate as insulators at low temperatures 5. To produce a solar cell, the semiconductor is contaminated or "doped". By doing this, depending upon the type of dopant, one can obtain a surplus of either positive charge carriers called p-conducting semiconductor layer or negative charge carriers called n-conducting semiconductor layer. If two differently contaminated semiconductor layers are combined, then a so-called p-n-junction results on the boundary of the layers.
By doping trivalent element, we get p-type semiconductor. Photovoltaic effect Definition: The generation of voltage across the PN junction in a semiconductor due to the absorption of light radiation is called photovoltaic effect.
The Devices based on this effect is called photovoltaic device.
Only some of these photons - those with energy in excess of the band gap - can be converted into electricity by the solar cell. When such photon enters the semiconductor, it may be absorbed and promote an electron from the valence band to the conduction band.
Therefore, a vacant is created in the valence band and it is called hole. Now, the electron in the conduction band and hole in valence band combine together and forms electron-hole pairs. The most commonly known solar cell is configured as a large-area p-n junction made from silicon wafer. A single cell can produce only very tiny amounts of electricity It can be used only to light up a small light bulb or power a calculator. Single photovoltaic cells are used in many small electronic appliances such as watches and calculators Solar panel or solar array or Solar module The solar panel or solar array is the interconnection of number of solar module to get efficient power.
A solar module consists of number of interconnected solar cells. Types of Solar cell Based on the types of crystal used, soar cells can be classified as, 1. Monocrystalline silicon cells 2. Polycrystalline silicon cells 3.Please click the Facebook Like Button if you are satisfied. Return to Electronics Engineering Seminar Topics.
Receive all seminar updates via Facebook. Just Click the Like Button Below? Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells A solar cell is a device that converts the energy of sunlight directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect.
The term solar cell is reserved for devices designed specifically to capture energy from sunlight while the term photovoltaic cell is used when the light source is unspecified.
Assemblies of cells are used to make solar modules, also known as solar panels. The energy generated this from solar modules, referred to as solar power, is an example of solar energy.
Photovoltaics is the field of technology and research related to the practical application of photovoltaic cells in producing electricity from light, though it is often used specifically to refer to the generation of electricity from sunlight. Applications and implementations Solar cells are often electrically connected and encapsulated as a module. Photovoltaic modules often have a sheet of glass on the front sun up side, allowing light to pass while protecting the semiconductor wafers from the elements rain, hail, etc.
Solar cells are also usually connected in series in modules, creating an additive voltage. Connecting cells in parallel will yield a higher current. Modules are then interconnected, in series or parallel, or both, to create an array with the desired peak DC voltage and current.
The power output of a solar array is measured in watts or kilowatts. In order to calculate the typical energy needs of the application, a measurement in watt-hours, kilowatt-hours or kilowatt-hours per day is often used. On top is a transparent anode made of fluoride-doped tin dioxide SnO2:F deposited on the back of a typically glass plate.
On the back of this conductive plate is a thin layer of titanium dioxide TiO2which forms into a highly porous structure with an extremely high surface area.
TiO2 only absorbs a small fraction of the solar photons those in the UV. The plate is then immersed in a mixture of a photosensitive ruthenium-polypyridine dye also called molecular sensitizers and a solvent.V It supplies DC power.
V In this effect, light falling on a semi- conductor device of two layers, produces a potential difference or photo voltage between the layers. V The voltage thus produced can drive a current through an external circuit producing useful work. The electrons diffuse to the p- type side. When the electrons and holes are separated electric power can be extracted from the circuit. VA current is identified due to drift of minority carriers across a junction as a generation current.
V So the total current is depend on current due to usual diode and current due to optically generation. V So power is delivered from junction to external circuit. V Solar cell work in this IV quadrant region. Forward bias characteristics of solar cell V This figure gives many parameter of solar cell. V Fill Factor- is essentially a measure of quality of the solar cell. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read Free For 30 Days. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
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Ankur Anand. Hu Jack. Thomas Wayne. Anonymous AoUv7Gz. Jose Angulo. Meghali Borle.Mohammad Bagher. Polymer solar cells have many intrinsic advantages, such as their light weight, flexibility, and low material and manufacturing costs.
Recently, polymer tandem solar cells have attracted significant attention due to their potential to achieve higher performance than single cells. Photovoltaic's deal with the conversion of sunlight into electrical energy. Classic photovoltaic solar cells based on inorganic semiconductors have developed considerably  since the first realization of a silicon solar cell in by Chapin, Fuller and Pearson in the Bell labs.
Though the solar energy industry is heavily subsidized throughout many years, the prices of silicon solar cell based power plants or panels are still not competitive with other conventional combustion techniques — except for several niche products. An approach for lowering the manufacturing costs of solar cells is to use organic materials that can be processed under less demanding conditions. Organic photovoltaic's has been developed for more than 30 years, however, within the last decade the research field gained considerable in momentum [3,4].
The amount of solar energy lighting up Earth's land mass every year is nearly 3, times the total amount of annual human energy use.
But to compete with energy from fossil fuels, photovoltaic devices must convert sunlight to electricity with a certain measure of efficiency. Keywords: organic solar cells, solar energy, photovoltaic, polymer.
DOI: The amount of energy that the Earth receives from the sun is enormous: 1. As the world energy consumption in amounted to 4. Another approach to making solar cells is to use organic materials, such as conjugated polymers. Solar cells based on thin polymer films are particularly attractive because of their ease of processing, mechanical flexibility, and potential for low cost fabrication of large areas. Additionally, their material properties can be tailored by modifying their chemical makeup, resulting in greater customization than traditional solar cells allow.
Organic solar cells can be distinguished by the production technique, the character of the materials and by the device design. The two main production techniques can be distinguished as either wet processing or thermal evaporation. Device architectures are single layer, bi layer hetero junction and bulk hetero junction, with the diffuse bi layer hetero junction as intermediate between the bi layer and the bulk hetero junctionWhereas the single layer comprises of only one active material, the other architectures are based on respectively two kinds of materials: electron donors D and electron acceptors A.
The difference of these architectures lays in the charge generation mechanism: single layer devices require generally a Scotty barrier at one contact, which allows separating photo excitations in the barrier field. The DA solar cells apply the photo induced electron transfer [ 5 ] to separate the electron from the hole. The photo induced electron transfer occurs from the excited state of the donor lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, LUMO to the LUMO of the acceptor, which therefore has to be a good electron acceptor with a stronger electron affinity.
Subsequent to charge separation both the electron and the hole have to reach the opposite electrodes, the cathode and the anode, respectively. Thus a direct current can be delivered to an outer circuit. As the evidence of global warming continues to build-up, it is becoming clear that we will have to find ways to produce electricity without the release of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
Fortunately, we have renewable energy sources which neither run out nor have any significant harmful effects on our environment. Harvesting energy directly from the sunlight using photovoltaic PV technology is being widely recognized as an essential component of future global energy production. Organic materials bear the potential to develop a long-term technology that is economically viable for large-scale power generation based on environmentally safe materials with unlimited availability.
Organic semiconductors are a less expensive alternative to inorganic semiconductors like Si; they can have extremely high optical absorption coefficients which offer the possibility for the production of very thin solar cells.
Additional attractive features of organic PVs are the possibilities for thin flexible devices which can be fabricated using high throughput, low temperature approaches that employ well established printing techniques in a roll-to-roll process [ Fabrication of bulk hetero junction plastic solar cells by screen printingApplied Physics Letters 79 This possibility of using flexible plastic substrates in an easily scalable high-speed printing process can reduce the balance of system cost for organic PVs, resulting in a shorter energetic pay-back time.